We found that hospitals are generally able to deploy their VMOs and staff specialists to be at the place and time required. However, a hospital’s ability to manage supply and demand at a local level is limited. This limitation will become more critical with the current national health reforms when public hospital funding will depend on their ability to set and meet activity targets and priorities. NSW Health cannot be sure that all payments made to VMOs are for agreed and delivered services. Across the hospitals visited we found limited checking of VMO claims for payment, limited quality information on staff specialist activities and limited hospital-level analysis of trends or inconsistencies in activities and treatments.